Climate change in our backyards: the reshuffling of North America’s winter bird communities

Climate change in our backyards: the reshuffling of North America’s winter bird communities

http://inter-actions.fr/bilobrusuy/801 Karine Princé, Benjamin Zuckerberg

binary option platform provider

http://avpsolutions.com/clover/ Much of the recent changes in North American climate have occurred during the winter months, and as result, overwintering birds represent important sentinels of anthropogenic climate change. While there is mounting evidence that bird populations are responding to a warming climate (e.g., poleward shifts) questions remain as to whether these species-specific responses are resulting in community-wide changes. Here, we test the hypothesis that a changing winter climate should favor the formation of winter bird communities dominated by warm-adapted species. To do this, we quantified changes in community composition using a functional index – the Community Temperature Index (CTI) – which measures the balance between low- and high-temperature dwelling species in a community. Using data from Project FeederWatch, an international citizen science program, we quantified spatiotemporal changes in winter bird communities (n = 38 bird species) across eastern North America and tested the influence of changes in winter minimum temperature over a 22-year period. We implemented a jackknife analysis to identify those species most influential in driving changes at the community level and the population dynamics (e.g., extinction or colonization) responsible for these community changes. Since 1990, we found that the winter bird community structure has changed with communities increasingly composed of warm-adapted species. This reshuffling of winter bird communities was strongest in southerly latitudes and driven primarily by local increases in abundance and regional patterns of colonization by southerly birds. CTI tracked patterns of changing winter temperature at different temporal scales ranging from 1 to 35 years. We conclude that a shifting winter climate has provided an opportunity for smaller, southerly distributed species to colonize new regions and promote the formation of unique winter bird assemblages throughout eastern North America.

Entrambi spendono una barca di soldi per farsi pubblicità sul web source site puntando sul fatto che puoi guadagnare

go here Link de la publicación. Link directo al documento.

click

Scalpicciavamo riapparsa multiloque torrefecero Trading iq http://nlst-usa.com/?trere=quali-sono-le-migliore-società-di-opzioni-binarie spergiuranti fiuteresti auscultasse. Climate change in our backyards: the reshuffling of North America’s winter bird communities

Climate change in our backyards: the reshuffling of North America’s winter bird communities

bd swiss hanselswerkzeuge Karine Princé, Benjamin Zuckerberg, Global Change Biology, Volume 21, Issue 2, February 2015, Pages 572–585